CHAPTER 3

The Preaching of man the Baptist.

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*1In the fifteenth year that the regime of Tiberius Caesar,* as soon as Pontius Pilate was branch of Judea,a and Herod was tetrarch the Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch the the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and also Lysanias was tetrarch of Abilene,2during the high priesthood the Annas and also Caiaphas,* words of God concerned Johnb the kid of Zechariah in the desert.3* the went throughout whole region of the Jordan, proclaiming a baptism of repentance because that the forgiveness that sins,c4* as it is written in the book of the indigenous of the prophet Isaiah:d

“A voice of one crying out in the desert:

‘Prepare the means of the Lord,e

make directly his paths.

5Every sink shall it is in filled

and every mountain and also hill shall it is in made low.

The winding roads shall it is in made straight,

and the rough ways made smooth,

6and all flesh shall watch the salvation of God.’”f

7He claimed to the crowds who came the end to be i was baptized by him, “You brood of vipers! who warned you to flee native the coming wrath?g8Produce great fruits as evidence of your repentance; and do not start to say to yourselves, ‘We have actually Abraham together our father,’ for i tell you, God can raise up kids to Abraham from this stones.h9Even currently the ax lies in ~ the source of the trees. Thus every tree the does no produce great fruit will certainly be reduced down and also thrown right into the fire.”i

10And the crowds inquiry him, “What then have to we do?”11He said to them in reply, “Whoever has two tunics need to share with the human who has none. And whoever has actually food have to do likewise.”12Even taxation collectors came to be baptized and also they stated to him, “Teacher, what must we do?”j13He answer them, “Stop collecting an ext than what is prescribed.”14Soldiers likewise asked him, “And what is it that we must do?” the told them, “Do not exercise extortion, execute not falsely accuse anyone, and be satisfied with your wages.”

15k currently the people were filled through expectation, and also all were asking in their hearts whether John can be the Messiah.16* man answered them all, saying,l “I to be baptizing you with water, but one mightier 보다 I is coming. Ns am not worthy to ease the thongs of his sandals. He will baptize you v the holy Spirit and also fire.17His winnowing fan* is in his hand to clean his threshing floor and to conference the wheat into his barn, but the chaff he will certainly burn with unquenchable fire.”m18Exhorting them in countless other ways, that preached an excellent news to the people.19* currently Herod the tetrarch,n who had actually been censured by him because of Herodias, his brother’s wife, and because of all the angry deeds Herod had committed,20added still another to these by placing John in prison.

The Baptism of Jesus.*21o After all the human being had been baptized and Jesus additionally had been baptized and also was praying,* heaven was opened22* p and also the divine Spirit descended upon the in bodily kind like a dove. And also a voice came from heaven, “You space my lover Son; through you ns am fine pleased.”

The genealogy of Jesus.*23q once Jesus started his ministry he was about thirty year of age. He was the son, as was thought, that Joseph, the child of Heli,r24the child of Matthat, the boy of Levi, the son of Melchi, the boy of Jannai, the child of Joseph,25the son of Mattathias, the son of Amos, the son of Nahum, the child of Esli, the child of Naggai,26the boy of Maath, the son of Mattathias, the child of Semein, the son of Josech, the child of Joda,27the kid of Joanan, the child of Rhesa, the child of Zerubbabel, the child of Shealtiel, the kid of Neri,s28the child of Melchi, the child of Addi, the son of Cosam, the boy of Elmadam, the kid of Er,29the child of Joshua, the kid of Eliezer, the kid of Jorim, the child of Matthat, the son of Levi,30the child of Simeon, the boy of Judah, the kid of Joseph, the boy of Jonam, the boy of Eliakim,31t the son of Melea, the kid of Menna, the son of Mattatha, the boy of Nathan, the child of David,*32the child of Jesse,u the son of Obed, the child of Boaz, the child of Sala, the boy of Nahshon,33the boy of Amminadab, the boy of Admin, the son of Arni, the son of Hezron, the kid of Perez,v the kid of Judah,w34the son of Jacob, the kid of Isaac, the boy of Abraham,x the son of Terah, the boy of Nahor,35the kid of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the boy of Shelah,36the boy of Cainan, the child of Arphaxad, the boy of Shem,y the son of Noah, the kid of Lamech,37the kid of Methuselah, the boy of Enoch, the child of Jared, the child of Mahalaleel, the boy of Cainan,38the son of Enos, the kid of Seth, the kid of Adam,z the kid of God.

* <3:1–20> back Luke is indebted in this ar to his sources, the Gospel the Mark and also a repertoire of sayings of man the Baptist, he has plainly marked this introduction to the to adjust of Jesus v his very own individual style. Just as the gospel started with a long periodic sentence (Lk 1:1–4), so also this ar (Lk 3:1–2). That casts the speak to of john the Baptist in the form of an Old testimony prophetic speak to (Lk 3:2) and extends the quotation from Isaiah discovered in Mk 1:3 (Is 40:3) through the addition of Is 40:4–5 in Lk 3:5–6. In act so, he gift his layout of the universality that salvation, i beg your pardon he has actually announced previously in the indigenous of Simeon (Lk 2:30–32). Moreover, in explicate the expectation of the people (Lk 3:15), Luke is characterizing the moment of John’s preaching in the same way as he had earlier described the case of other devout Israelites in the infancy rigid (Lk 2:25–26, 37–38). In Lk 3:7–18 Luke gift the preaching of man the Baptist that urges the crowds to revolutionary in see of the coming wrath (Lk 3:7, 9: eschatological preaching), and also who offers the crowds details standards because that reforming society conduct (Lk 3:10–14: ethical preaching), and also who announces come the crowds the coming of one mightier 보다 he (Lk 3:15–18: messianic preaching).

* <3:1> Tiberius Caesar: Tiberius thrived Augustus as emperor in A.D. 14 and also reigned till A.D. 37. The fifteenth year that his reign, relying on the an approach of calculating his very first regnal year, would have actually fallen in between A.D. 27 and also 29. Pontius Pilate: prefect the Judea indigenous A.D. 26 to 36. The Jewish chronicler Josephus explains him together a greedy and ruthless prefect that had small regard because that the regional Jewish population and their spiritual practices (see Lk 13:1). Herod: i.e., Herod Antipas, the boy of Herod the Great. He ruled over Galilee and also Perea indigenous 4 B.C. To A.D. 39. His official title tetrarch means literally, “ruler that a quarter,” but came come designate any type of subordinate prince. Philip: also a kid of Herod the Great, tetrarch of the region to the north and east that the Sea that Galilee native 4 B.C. Come A.D. 34. Just two little areas that this region are discussed by Luke. Lysanias: nothing is known about this Lysanias that is said here to have actually been tetrarch that Abilene, a region northwest the Damascus.

* <3:2> throughout the high priesthood the Annas and also Caiaphas: after situating the speak to of man the Baptist in terms of the polite rulers that the period, Luke currently mentions the spiritual leadership the Palestine (see keep in mind on Lk 1:5). Annas had been high monk A.D. 6–15. After gift deposed by the Romans in A.D. 15 the was thrived by various members that his family and also eventually through his son-in-law, Caiaphas, who was high monk A.D. 18–36. Luke refers to Annas together high priest at this time (but see Jn 18:13, 19), possibly since of the proceeding influence of Annas or since the title continued to be used for the ex-high priest. Words of God came to John: Luke is alone among the new Testament writers in shortcut the preaching that John through a call from God. Luke is thereby identifying John v the prophets who ministries began with comparable calls. In Lk 7:26 John will be explained as “more than a prophet”; the is additionally the precursor that Jesus (Lk 7:27), a transitional figure inaugurating the duration of the fulfillment the prophecy and also promise.

* <3:3> See note on Mt 3:2.

* <3:4> The Essenes indigenous Qumran used the same passage to define why their community was in the desert studying and observing the law and the prophets (1QS 8:12–15).

* <3:16> He will certainly baptize you v the holy Spirit and also fire: in contrast to John’s baptism through water, Jesus is claimed to baptize v the holy Spirit and also with fire. Indigenous the suggest of check out of the early Christian community, the Spirit and fire must have actually been understood in the light of the fire symbolism that the pouring out the the soul at Pentecost (Acts 2:1–4); however as part of John’s preaching, the Spirit and fire have to be regarded their purifying and refining qualities (Ez 36:25–27; Mal 3:2–3). See keep in mind on Mt 3:11.

* <3:17> Winnowing fan: see keep in mind on Mt 3:12.

* <3:19–20> Luke separates the to adjust of man the Baptist from that of Jesus by reporting the imprisonment of John prior to the baptism the Jesus (Lk 3:21–22). Luke uses this literary maker to serve his understanding of the periods of salvation history. V John the Baptist, the time of promise, the period of Israel, involves an end; through the baptism the Jesus and also the descent of the spirit upon him, the moment of fulfillment, the period of Jesus, begins. In his second volume, the plot of the Apostles, Luke will present the 3rd epoch in salvation history, the duration of the church.

* <3:21–22> This illustration in Luke focuses on the heavenly article identifying Jesus as kid and, with the allusion come Is 42:1, together Servant the Yahweh. The relationship of Jesus come the dad has currently been announced in the infancy narrative (Lk 1:32, 35; 2:49); that occurs right here at the beginning of Jesus’ Galilean ministry and also will reappear in Lk 9:35 prior to another significant section that Luke’s gospel, the take trip narrative (Lk 9:51–19:27). Somewhere else in Luke’s works (Lk 4:18; plot 10:38), this event will be understood as a type of anointing of Jesus.

* <3:21> to be praying: Luke routinely presents Jesus in ~ prayer at necessary points in his ministry: below at his baptism; at the an option of the Twelve (Lk 6:12); prior to Peter’s confession (Lk 9:18); in ~ the transfiguration (Lk 9:28); once he teaches his disciples come pray (Lk 11:1); in ~ the last Supper (Lk 22:32); ~ above the mount of Olives (Lk 22:41); top top the overcome (Lk 23:46).

* <3:22> You space my lover Son; v you i am well pleased: this is the finest attested analysis in the Greek manuscripts. The western reading, “You space my Son, now I have actually begotten you,” is derived from Ps 2:7.

* <3:23–38> whereas Mt 1:2 starts the genealogy of Jesus through Abraham to emphasize Jesus’ bonds through the civilization of Israel, Luke’s universalism leader him to trace the descent of Jesus past Israel to Adam and beyond that to God (Lk 3:38) to tension again Jesus’ magnificent sonship.

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* <3:31> The child of Nathan, the son of David: in maintaining with Jesus’ prophetic function in Luke and Acts (e.g., Lk 7:16, 39; 9:8; 13:33; 24:19; acts 3:22–23; 7:37) Luke traces Jesus’ Davidic family tree through the prophet Nathan (see 2 Sm 7:2) quite than with King Solomon, together Mt 1:6–7.